Ana Paula Cosme
The ethical project of Leo Strauss's political philosophy became notice as it proposes us an ontological valuation of truth as first task of philosophy. The task of political philosophy it's preceded by the “faith” in the essential character of it self, abandoning the consensual truth concept so characteristic of modernity. Thus, pretended show the critical dimension
of straussian thought, which guide the philosopher's task.
KEYWORDS: Leo Strauss; Political Philosophy; Modernity
We take up N. Luhmann's body of work and question legislating and above all judicial ambitions to control Modernity's risks through Law. We adress the Brazilian case and its tendency to control constitutional affairs, and we discuss how far can we, in the Law's perspective, try
to determine the future.
KEYWORDS: Constitution, Risk; Courts of Law; Luhmann
In this paper I intend to show that an evolved conception of the human nature and of consciousness constitutes a possible starting point to create an ethical view of human action
in the world, looking for the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty.
I will begin by analysing António Damsio's claims on the relation body/consciousness in order
to clarify its resemblance with the analysis that Merleau-Ponty does of the same concepts
in his works La Nature and Phenomenologie de la Perception . I shall realise that, like Damásio, Merleau-Ponty understands the body as the place of the consciousness, suggesting an explanation of the human nature in terms of an ontological ethics, based in the natural selection of Darwin.
Our final claim is that all this results in ethical implications of the way one should morally understand some values, as freedom, responsability, affectivity, respect and love; our relation to non-human animals, which like us evolve from a natural body and some type of counciousness. In this point, there are some comentators developing very analysis on the ethics of Merleau-Ponty.
KEYWORDS : Ethics, Body, Consciousness, Nature, Freedom.
Danilo Dornas e José Mauricio Carvalho
Joaquim de Carvalho presented a critical aproach to History of Philosophy and to Philosphy's development itself. He also pointed out singularities of Philosphy in Portugal that called for the study of national philosophies as the result of sets of prefernces about philosophical issues.
In this paper we look on several interpretations of Spinoza and try to show in what ways Carvalho's method stands apart of others. We also show that he started the study of national philosophy, a theme stressed by contemproarty Brazilian cultralists.
KEYWORDS: Spinoza; national philosophy; History of Philosophy
In this paper we try to present Ortega y gaset's perspective on the social process he names «hyperdemocracy». Ortega believed that Education and Politics keep an inextricable connection that gives us a possibility of overcoming the twentieth century crisis caused by mass society's destruction of personal responsability.
KEYWORDS: Philosophy, Politics; Education; Ortega y Gasset; XXth century
ow can we designate diverse thinkers as Aristóteles, Malebranche, Nietzsche, Heidegger
or Wittgenstein, philosophers ? In this paper we try to criticize the epistemological turn of contemporary philosophy and propose 1)to try to make a scientific philosophy confuses the cognitive status of philosophy; 2) that thed concept of science sgested in 1) is ideological; 3) that antimetaphisics are not unanimous and in fact remain in some aspects metaphysical.
We conclude with a proposal on how to define philosophy.
KEYWORDS: Metaphilosophy; contemporary philosophy; metaphysics, Philosophy